AGRICULTURE

Agriculture and allied activities play a vital role in the socio-economic development of Assam, due to the State’s rural and agrarian dependent economy. Agriculture is seen as the backbone of the State’s economy and is a predominant contributor to the overall development of the State. Agriculture acts as a key source of occupation and livelihood to a large proportion of its rural population. As per 2011 Census, out of the total land mass, 98.4 percent is rural, where agriculture and allied activities are the main occupations of its people. About 87.38 percent of the total land mass available for agricultural cultivation in Assam with a net cultivable area of 28.11 lakh hectares. More than 85 percent of farmer families in Assam are either small or marginal farmers, with an average land holding of only 0.63 hectares. Agriculture as a sector in Assam continues to support directly or indirectly more than 75 percent of its population also offering employment and support to more than 50 percent of its total workforce.The percentage-wise composition of area under major crops are -

Cereals : 80.8%
Fibres : 9.6%
Oilseeds : 3.3%
Pulses : 3.1%
Misc.Crops : 3.2%

Horticultural Crops:
Citrus fruits, Pineapples, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Apples, Apricots, Walnuts, Arecanuts and a variety of vegetables.

Spice Crops:
Ginger, Turmeric, Black Pepper, Cardamom and Cinnamon.

Indigenous Crops:
Sericulture, Aromatic Plants, Medicinal Plants, Orchids and Ramie fibre.

Plantation Crops:
Tea, Rubber and Forest trees of economic importance including fodder and fuel trees, cane and bamboo.

Trend Of Growth Of Agricultural
Sector [GSDP at Constant (2011-12) Prices]
(Figure in percentage)

Years
Contribution to
GSDP
(Figure in Rs. Lakh)
Annual Growth
Rate over the
previous year
2011-12
2061487
608
2012-13
2496905
21.12
2013-14
2372688
- 4.97
2014-15(P)
2373106
0.02
2015-16 (Q)
2474086
4.26

Source: Economic Survey Assam,2016-17

The State Agriculture Department has also concentrated on the methodical use of available resources for increasing production and productivity of agricultural and horticultural crop by using best technologies available. The State Agriculture Department has been taking various steps for increasing production and productivity in the agriculture sector. Formulation of State and District-specific plans to rely on prevailing agro-climatic conditions, growth potentials and specific requirements of districts have been given attention on namely use of quality and HYV seeds, embracement of multi-cropping productivity patterns, provision of assured irrigation facilities, use of advanced farm mechanization procedures, specific use of bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides, practices of organic farming, development of marketing infrastructure for encouraging the farming community and see to the creation of maximum potentials for income and employment opportunities are some of the measures adopted by the Government.

Trend of Production of Foodgrains in Assam
(Figure in ‘000 tonnes)

Year Total Rice Wheat
Total
Pulses
Total Food
grains
Total oilseeds
(excel, Coconut)
2001-02
3854 85 66 4023 156
2002-03 3738 78 60 3894 149
2003-04 3880 73 63 4034 157
2004-05 3470 68 61 3617 146
2005-06 3552 54 56 3680 114
2006-07 2916 67 59 3060 134
2007-08 3319 71 61 3468 139
2008-09 4009 55 62 4142 141
2009-10 4409 65 66 4557 147
2010-11 5033 56 72 5178 159
2011-12 4716 49 73 4857 156
2012-13 5128 44 84 5279 187
2013-14 5193 40 104 5418 186
2014-15 5223 29 111 5459 206
2015-16(p) 5125 34 108 5359 215

Source:
Economic Survey, Assam 2016-17


Area Under Crops

According to recent estimates, the total area under paddy cultivation during the year 2015-16 was 24.85 lakh hectares or 92.96 percent of the total area under food grains in the state.

Year Autumn Rice Winter Rice Summer Rice Total Rice* Wheat Total Pulses Total Food Grains Total Oil seeds (excl. Coconut)
2004-05 4.36 16.36 3.11 23.83 0.64 1.08 25.82 2.77
2005-06 3.97 17.07 3.15 24.20 0.50 1.00 25.97 2.42
2006-07 3.79 14.98 3.12 21.89 0.60 1.07 23.82 2.70
2007-08 3.54 16.47 3.23 23.24 0.56 1.13 25.18 2.66
2008-09 3.54 16.47 3.23 24.84 0.50 1.14 26.70 2.53
2009-10 3.46 17.89 3.60 24.84 0.50 1.14 26.70 2.53
2010-11 3.13 18.59 3.99 25.71 0.45 1.26 27.67 2.72
2012-13 2.38 18.57 3.93 24.88 0.34 1.42 26.92 3.05
2013-14 2.23 18.81 3.99 25.03 0.31 1.50 27.13 3.05
2014-15 1.96 18.83 4.16 24.95 0.24 1.48 27.00 3.07
2015-16 1.91 18.89 4.05 24.85 O.21 1.42 26.73 3.11

Source:
Economic Survey, Assam 2016-17