AGRICULTURE

Agriculture constitutes the primary sector in Assam economy. The socio-economic condition of Assam largely depends on its agricultural production. It plays the chief role of revenue earning in Assam economy. Rice is the main food crop in Assam agriculture and it is the main diet in the state too. Other food crops cultivated in Assam agriculture include jute, sugarcane, fruits, tea, pulses, coconut, potatoes, cotton, and arecanuts. Out of the total population of Assam, 74% are dependent on agrarian and allied activities. The percentage-wise composition of area under major crops are -

ereals : 80.8%
Fibres : 9.6%
Oilseeds : 3.3%
Pulses : 3.1%
Misc.Crops : 3.2%

Horticultural Crops:
Citrus fruits, Pineapples, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Apples, Apricots, Walnuts, Arecanuts and a variety of vegetables.

Spice Crops:
Ginger, Turmeric, Black Pepper, Cardamom and Cinnamon.

Indigenous Crops:
Sericulture, Aromatic Plants, Medicinal Plants, Orchids and Ramie fibre.

Plantation Crops:
Tea, Rubber and Forest trees of economic importance including fodder and fuel trees, cane and bamboo.

Total Area and Classification of Area in Assam (Area in hectare):

    2001-02 2002-03 2003-04
A. Total Geographical area 7843800 7843800 7843800
B. Forest Area 1932718 1932718 1954012
C. Not Available for Cultivation:
  a) Area put to non Agricultural uses 1080570 1080570 1080570
b) Barren & Uncultivable land 1452749 1452812 1452463
c) Total 2533319 2533382 2533033
D. Other Uncultivable land excluding fallow land:
  a)Permanent Pasture & other Grazing land 159968 159968 159968
b) Land under Miscellaneous Tree Grove etc. (not including in net area sown) 208656 208656 208656
c) Cultivable waste land 76631 76631 76631
d) Total 445255 445255 445255
E. Fallow land:
  a) Fallow land other than current Fallow 65628 62293 59881
b) Current Fallow 98621 123363 126517
c) Total 164249 185656 186398
F. Net Area shown 2774464 2752994 2752601
G. Total Cropped Area 3983640 3958065 3956842
H. Area sown more than once 1209176 1205071 1205071

Source:
Economic Survey, Assam 2007-08
Statistical Handbook, Assam 2007

http://db.nedfi.com/content/total-area-and-classification-area)

AREA UNDER SOME IMPORTANT CROPS IN ASSAM

(Area in thousand hectares)

Sl. No. Crops 1990-91 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003
1 Autumn Rice 608 540 496 464
2 Winter Rice 1801 1777 1715 1749
3 Summer Rice 117 329 326 327
4 Total Rice 2526 2646 2536 2541
5 Wheat 84 70 72 69
6 Maize 21 20 20 20
7 Total cereals 2642 2747 2637 2638
8 Total Pulses 113 111 118 111
9 Total food grains 2755 2858 2755 2749
10 Rape & Mustard 295 274 272 261
11 Total Oil seeds (Excluding coconut) 320 301 299 287
12 Potato 59 80 80 75
13 Sugarcane 36 27 27 25
14 Jute 96 69 68 68

Source:
Economic Survey, Assam 2003-04
(http://assamgov.org/ecosurvey/table019.htm)

PRODUCTION OF SOME IMPORTANT CROPS IN ASSAM

Sl. No. Crops Unit 1990-1991 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003
1 Autumn Rice in '000' Tonnes 522 558 488 445
2 Winter Rice " 2565 2760 2713 2671
3 Summer Rice " 183 681 653 622
4 Total Rice " 3270 3999 3854 3738
5 Wheat " 105 86 85 78
6 Maize " 13 15 14 14
7 Total cereals " 3393 4105 3957 3834
8 Total Pulses " 49 62 66 60
9 Total food grains " 3442 4167 4023 3894
10 Rape & Mustard " 158 141 137 130
11 Total Oil seeds (Excluding coconut) " 169 155 151 143
12 Potato " 428 677 621 590
13 Sugarcane " 1522 988 1011 916
14 Jute in '000' bales of 180 Kg. per bale 866 668 674 691

Source:
Economic Survey, Assam 2003-04
(http://assamgov.org/ecosurvey/table020.htm)