Assam Human Development Index

The overall level of human development in the state has improved continually over the last 15 years all total human development in the state is just about half of the desired level. The Human Development Index (HDI) in Assam stands at 0.557. District wise Kamrup (M) has the highest HDI with a value of 0.703 preceded by Jorhat 0.655 and Hailakandi is credited with lowest HDI 0.437.

About one-third (30 percent) of the Potential aggregate human development is lost because of the prevailing inequalities underlying achievements in education, health and income dimensions. Highest inequality is perceptible in the income dimension (about 44 per cent) followed by health (32 percent) and then education (9 percent).

The overall human development of women, in general, is lower than that of men by some 14 percent.Gender inequality in key dimensions of human Development such as education, health and income, causes the loss of about 37 percent of potential human development achievement in the state in general.

About one-third of the population in the state is ‘multi-dimensionally poor’, more specifically, poor in more than one dimension of human development. In relation to an index of subjective well-being of people 56.4 per cent of people is either moderately or intensely ‘satisfied’ with the most critical processes of well-being. Jorhat has the highest percentage of ‘satisfied’ people (82.4 percent) while Marigaon has the lowest (18.1 percent). The main drivers of ‘satisfaction’ have been drawn from ecology and environment, cultural and psychological domains whilst governance, education and health domains the have been the three main drivers of ‘dissatisfaction’.

The total unemployment rate (percentage of people within the age of 15-59 years finding no employment) is estimated at 13.4 per cent. The female unemployment rate is estimated to be 33.9 per cent compared to 8.0 percent in the case of males. The youth unemployment rate (15-24 per cent) is again estimated to be as high as 37.7 percent. Geographical diversity-wise unemployment is happened to be the highest in the tea gardens (15.3 per cent) and flood-affected areas (15.2 per cent).

In states like Assam inequalities in human development are a consequence of inequalities in opportunities to use productive resources and basic amenities. For example, the extent of inequality in landholding is clearly visible from the fact that the top 20 per cent of the people holds about 70 per cent of the total cultivable land while 80 per cent share 30 per cent of the remaining land. Likewise, the top 20 per cent shares 45 per cent of the total consumption expenditure while the bottom 20 per cent shares only 8 per cent.

About 37.4 per cent children below the age of five years are underweight and a majority of the underweight children are in the age group less than two years and live in rural areas. Regarding early motherhood and early pregnancy of adolescent girls about 15 per cent of girls in the age group of 15-19 are already married.

Source: (Assam Human Development Report 2014: Managing Diversities, Achieving Human Development)

Categories Unemployment Rate by Groups Group Share Among Unemployed
Total
13.4
100.00
Gender
Male
8.0
46.9
Female
33.9
53.1
Age Group
15-24
37.7
66.0
25-54
6.4
33.4
55-59
1.3
0.6
Area of Residence
Urban
13.4
15.1
Rural
13.4
84.9
New FSS
Urban Areas
13.4
15.1
Char
9.2
8.8
Flood Affected
15.2
11.5
Hills
13.9
3.4
Tea Garden
15.3
18.4
Border
14.1
23.2
Multiple Diversities
14.7
7.2
General
12.3
12.4
Level of Education
Not literate
5.7
7.8
Literate: without formal schooling
5.3
0.6
Below Primary
8.9
3.2
Primary
10.9
13.7
Middle
15.2
24.5
Secondary
16.5
22.3
Higher Secondary
21.3
16.8
Diploma/certifcate course (ITI etc.)
19.5
0.5
Graduate (general)
19.2
9.0
Post-graduate & above (general)
15.1
1.1
Technical/professional degree (medical,
engineering, law etc
14.1
0.6

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Literacy rate Assam and India: 2001 and 2011

 
India 2011
India 2001
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Male 80.9 77.2 88.8 75.3 70.7 86.3
Female 53.7 46.1 72.9 71.3 68.2 89.7
Total 73.1 67.8 84.1 64.8 58.7 79.9
 
Assam 2011
Assam 2001
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Rural
Urban
Male 78.8 76.5 91.8 53,7 46.1 72.9
Female 54.6 50.7 80.2 54.6 50.7 80.2
Total 73.2 70.4 88.9 63.3 59.7 85.3

Source: Census 2011, 2001

Occupational engagement by level of education (in %)

Levels of
education
Agriculture
&
Livestock
Casual
Work
Permanent
Salaried
Work
Self
employed
in non farm
Total
Not Literate 28.35 57.65 4.00 10.00 100.00
Up to Middle 30.77 44.93 5.82 18.48 100.00
Up to Higher
Secondary
26.04 24.85 22.73 26.38 100.00
Diploma/ Degree 8.99 12.39 55.40 23.22 100.00
Above Graduation 4.65 11.05 62.40 21.90 100.00
Total 27.38 39.90 13.60 19.12 100.00

Source: HDR Survey, Assam (2013).

Distribution pattern of out of school children of age 6-16 (in %)

Out of school children* Rural Urban Male Female Total
Never enrolled 28.97 16.02 24.98 32.35 28.14
Left after enrolment 66.18 81.22 70.02 63.30 67.14
Enrolled but does not go to school 4.63 2.21 4.81 4.02 4.47
Goes to informal school 0.23 0.55 0.19 0.33 0.25
Total percent 100 100 100 100 100

Source: HDR Survey, Assam (2013).

Infant mortality rate Assam and India

State 2000 2010 2013
Persons Males Females Persons Males Females Persons Males Females
Assam 74.5 65.9 82.9 58 56 60 54 53 55
India 67.8 66.8 68.9 47 46 49 40 39 42

Source: SRS, 2013.

Under fve mortality rate by gender, Assam and India

Place Total Rural Urban
Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
India
(2012)*
52 49 56 58 54 62 32 31 34
Assam
(2013)**
71 71 72 77 77 78 36 34 39

Source: **AHS, 2011 (Updated series 2012-2013) and *SRS, 2012.

Key Dimensional Achievements in Assam

(Spatial Diversity Category wise)

Spatial Diversity
Category
Life expectancy
at Birth
Mean Years
of Schooling
Expected
Years
of Schooling
Annual
Per Capita
income
Char 63.80 4.76 11.76 21516
Flood Affected 50.22 6.54 11.90 23604
Hills 67.42 5,25 11.87 18060
Tea Garden 49.10 6.13 11.66 21588
Border 50.34 5,46 11,75 17988
Multiple Diversities 52.37 5.30 11.66 18324
General 56.26 6.15 12.10 26016

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Dimensional Inequalities in Assam (Spatial Diversity
Category wise)

Spatial Diversity Category
Inequality
In Health
Inequality
In education
Inequality
In Living
Standard
Char 0.273 0.095 0.439
Flood Affected 0.337 0.073 0.474
Hills 0.243 0.075 0.530
Tea Garden 0.333 0.093 0.479
Border 0.309 0.089 0.349
Multiple Diversities 0.385 0,106 0.357
General 0.315 0.085 0.383

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Dimensional and Human Development Indices of Districts

District Dimensional
Index: Health
Dimensional
Index:
education
Dimensional
Index: Living
Standard
HDI
Baksa 0.340 0.606 0.404 0,437
Barpeta 0.768 0.684 0.462 0.624
Bongaigaon 0.530 0.667 0.507 0.564
Cachar 0.319 0.647 0.479 0.463
Chirang 0.746 0.677 0.457 0.614
Darrang 0.620 0.566 0.399 0.519
Dhemaji 0.481 0.688 0.393 0.507
Dhubri 0.510 0.579 0.380 0.482
Dibrugath 0.518 0.700 0.483 0.560
Dima Hasao 0.748 0.662 0.525 0.638
Goalpara 0.718 0.612 0.470 0.591
Golaghat 0.543 0.684 0.431 0.543
Hailakandi 0.366 0.605 0.376 0.437
Jorhat 0.587 0.744 0.643 0.655
Kamrup 0.798 0.648 0.433 0.630
Kamrup(M) 0.554 0.783 0.800 0.703
Karbi Anglong 0.743 0.645 0.480 0.612
Karimganj 0.360 0.637 0.420 0.612
Kokrajhar 0.539 0.645 0.402 0.519
Lakhimpur 0.612 0.693 0.468 0.583
Marigaon 0.730 0.678 0.386 0.576
Nagaon 0.588 0.684 0.516 0.592
Nalbari 0.496 0.721 0.535 0.576
Sibsagar 0.521 0.758 0.630 0.629
Sonitpur 0.444 0.615 0.532 0.526
Tinsukia 0.425 0.625 0.483 0.505
Udalguri 0.538 0.602 0.441 0.523
Assam 0.523 0.661 0.501 0.557

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Ranks of Dimensional and Human Development Indices of
Districts

District Rank:
Health
Rank:
education
Rank:
Living
Standard
Rank:
HDI
Baksa 26 23 21 26
Barpeta 2 9 16 6
Bongaigaon 16 13 8 14
Cachar 27 16 13 24
Chirang 4 12 17 7
Darrang 8 27 23 19
Dhemaji 21 7 24 21
Dhubri 19 26 26 23
Dibrugarh 18 5 9 15
Dima Hasao 3 4 6 3
Goalpara 7 22 14 10
Golaghat 13 8 19 16
Hailakandi 24 24 27 27
Jorhat 11 3 2 2
Kamrup 1 15 11 4
Kamrup(M) 12 1 1 1
Karbi Anglong 5 17 12 8
Karimganj 25 19 20 25
Kokrajhaar 14 18 22 20
Lakhimpur 9 6 15 11
Marigaon 6 11 25 13
Nagaon 10 10 7 9
Nalbari 20 4 4 12
Sibsagar 17 2 3 5
Sonitpur 22 21 5 17
Tinsukia 23 20 10 22
Udalguri 15 25 18 18

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI): Spatial Diversity
Categories

District Headcount
Ratio of
Multidimensionally
Poor
Headcount
Ratio of
Vulnerable
MPI
Char
44.59
17.60
18.57
Flood Affected
27.74
17.78
11.70
Hills
33.70
21.21
13.86
Tea Garden
30.09
15.57
12.44
Border
32.87
19.25
13.78
Multiple Diversities
37.48
18.48
15.73
General
29.40
18.06
11.75
Total
30.10
16.54
12,49

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Poverty Ratios in Assam by Spatial Diversity and Religious
Groups

Spatial Diversity Category Poverty Ratio
Char Block 42.6
Flood-affected Block 36.4
Hill Block 44.7
Tea Garden Block 37.6
Border Block 38.9
Multi-diversity Block 40.8
General Block 39.5

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Landlessness by Spatial Diversity and Religious Groups
(Percent HH)

No Homestead
Land
No Cultivatable
Land
No Irrigated
Land
Spatial Diversity
Char Block 0.8 50.6 79.3
Flood-affected Block 1.2 44.5 90.8
Hill Block 1.4 29.4 93.9
Tea Garden Block 1.5 48.2 98.9
Border Block 0.4 49.3 89.0
Multiple-diversity Block 1.1 48.1 93.7
General Block 0.4 52.4 87.1

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Age group wise students currently pursuing education by
spatial diversity (in percent)

Diversity 6-14
years
GPI 15-16
years
GPI 17-18
years
GPI
19-24
years
GPI
Char 93.33 0.95 57.49 0.85 41.32 0.93 11.62 0.62
Flood Affected 94.67 0.89 66.81 0.86 50.43 0.85 16.17 1.01
Hills 92.09 0.86 68.86 0.79 61.57 0.83 24.15 0.69
Tea Garden 91.85 0.91 65.36 0.94 51.11 1.03 14.36 0.85
Border 93.97 0.99 65.31 0.91 49.05 0.94 15.63 0.79
Multiple
Diversities
91.39 1.02 63.80 0.81 47.41 0.84 14.37 0.73
General 95.70 0.92 70.94 1.11 57.66 0.86 17.78 0.92
Assam 93.85 0.95 74.57 0.95 52.71 0.82 17.70 0.79

Source: HDR Survey, 2013

Children who are out of school by spatial diversity (in percent)

District Never enrolled Left after
enrolment
(dropouts)
Enrolled but do
not go to school
Char 33.21 62.35 4.20
Flood Affected 23.63 70.02 6.13
Hills 22.60 76.71 0.68
Tea Garden 23.89 70.20 5.91
Border 15.97 78.99 4.71
Multiple Diversities 29.95 67.15 2.90
General 14.58 78.33 6.46
Group Total 22.07 73.06 4.63

Source: HDR Survey, 2013