Natural Resources

Oil and Natural Gas are vital minerals found in Assam. The state has a crude Oil reserve of over 1.3 billion tonnes and Natural Gas of over 156 billion cubic meters. The state is responsible for India’s 15% crude oil output. The wells at Digboi, Dukiajan, Sivasagar, Moran etc produce Natural Gas that can be accredited to 50% of India’s total onshore production. Assam is well endowed with mineral resources among which Limestone with about 700 million tones is one of the important mineral available in all grades. The China- Clay of Karbi Anglong districts is another significant input for the Ceramic industries. Assam is also famous for its coal output with a total production of 320 million tonnes. The coal found in Upper Assam and the Central Assam Highland has high sulfur content, high volatile matter content, high calorific value and low ash content. Assam also has a large deposit of Granite, estimated to be more than a billion Cubic Meters that have a huge domestic and export market.

Mineral Resources:
Oil and natural gas, coal, limestone, base metal, beryl, granite, clay, gypsum, iron, mica, mineral water, sillimanite and salt.

Figure At a Glance, 2015-16

Production of Coal (in thousand T.) 397
Production of Crude Oil (in thousand T.) 4513
Production of Utilised Natural Gas (in Million Cubic Metre) 2903
Production of Limestone (in thousand T.) 442
Index of Mineral Production (all) (Base: 2004-05=100) 98.96

Source: Statistical Hand Book of Assam 2016

Forest Resources:
Forest is a major component of Assam nearly a quarter of its land mass and half of it constituted of Reserve forest furnished with plentiful rainfall. The forests of Assam produce commercially useful resources like timber, bamboo, stone etc.

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are an important part of Assam as many as 300 types of Medicinal herbs and pants are known to exist in the state. As per one estimate, 5-10% of the Plants and Herbs are commercially cultivated for extraction purposes and hence there is a lot of potential in this sector that can contribute to the local economy, subsistence health needs and improve natural resource management.

Horticulture products of Assam include:

Major Fruits: Pineapple, Banana, Coconut, Jackfruits, etc.

Major Citrus Fruits: Orange, Assam Lemon etc.

Major spices: Ginger, Turmaric, Bhut Jolokia, Chilies, pepper etc.

Figure At A Glance

Total Forest Area as on 31-03-2016
(Excluding unclassed State Forest)
1935173.32 hect
Reserved Forest Area
1397315.87 hect
Proposed Reserves Forest Area
175741.67 hect
Protected Area
362115.78 hect
National Park, 2015-16
Wildlife Santuaries, 2015-16
Proposed Wildlife Sanctuaries, 2015-16
Forest Road (Surfaced), 2016
1077.953 Km
Forest Road (Motorable), 2016
7972.050 Km
Forest Road (Non-motorable), 2016
6938.570 Km
Forest Revenue, 2016
5497.35 Lakh

Source: Statistical Hand Book of Assam 2016

Three types of silks are found in Assam, namely- Eri, Muga, and Pat (Mulberry). The Muga Silk is a unique silk found in Assam, it is popularly known as Golden Fibre and has already obtained Geographical Indication (GI) Certification. The sericulture industry in Assam can achieve required results if it gets continuous boost financially from the government and non-governmental organizations. If proper measures are adopted for the upliftment of farmers, rearers and weavers in this industry, surely this industry will see an enhancement of production in the future.

Figure at A Glance 2015-16

Sericulture Villages (in Nos.) [Private Sector] 11281

Families engaged in Sericulture (in Nos.)








Total Area under food plants (Govt.+Private) (in hect.)









Cocoons Reeled

Eri (‘000 Kg.)

Muga (Lakh No.)

Mulberry (‘000 Kg.)





Production of Silk Yarn (in Tonne)

Eri Raw Silk

Muga Raw Silk

Mulberry Raw Silk





Source: Statistical Hand Book of Assam 2016

Water Resources:
Assam has the unique advantage of 430 million acres feet of water resources which is used to generate hydro-electric power, widen the irrigation network and used as an inland water transport network. There is also considerable ground water resource in the Brahmaputra and Barak river basins which holds good prospects for utilisation.

Figure At A Glance, 2015-16

Gross Area Irrigated (in hect.) 229289
Net Area Irrigated (in hect.) 191568
Irrigation potential created through Govt. Irrigation Schemes (Major & Medium+Minor) (in hect.) 782645

Source: Statistical Hand Book of Assam 2016


Figure at A Glance 2015-16

No. of Handloom Training Centres 102
No. of Trainee in Handloom Training Centre 1516
Production in Weavers Extension Service Unit (in Mtr.) 58114.47
Production in Handloom Production Centre (in Mtr.) 7247.82
No. of Handloom Demonstration Circle 221
Villages Covered (Nos.) 14273
No. of Weavers engaged Part time 1530073
No. of Weavers engaged Whole time 418761

Source: Statistical Hand Book of Assam 2016