Meghalaya economy is mainly based on Agriculture and it plays a crucial role on the state’s economy. Almost 81% of the state's population depends on Agriculture, employment and income generation, agricultural development activities etc.

The main agricultural products produced in Meghalaya are rice, maize, lemon, orange, jackfruits, guava, litchi, pineapple, banana, temperate fruits like plum, pear, peach etc, ginger, turmeric, potato, black pepper, tezpatta, betel vine, areca nut, short-staple cotton, jute, Mesta, mustard and rapeseed etc.

Meghalaya has also achieved significant success in the cultivation of non-traditional crops like tea, nut, tomato, oilseeds, cashew, mushroom, wheat, etc. Meghalaya has also emerged as a substantial producer of oranges, peaches, pineapples, pears, guavas, plums and bananas of superb variety. The state also cultivates plenty of potatoes, tapioca, bay leaves, ginger, maize and jackfruit. Meghalaya's turmeric, especially the variety that is cultivated in Shangpung in the Jaintia Hills, is regarded as the best in the world and its curcumine content is as high as 7.5%. Plantation crops like coffee, rubber, black pepper and areca have become major products in the state.


Food grains Rice, Maize, Wheat, Millets, Pulses
Commercial Crops Potato, Sugarcane, Sweet Potato, Tapioca, Tobacco
Oilseeds Mustard, Rape seed, Soyabean, Sesamum
Fibre Crops Cotton, Jute, Mesta
Spices Ginger, Turmeric, Black pepper, Chillies, Bay leaf
Fruits Banana, Oranges, Pineapple, Papaya, Jack-Fruit, Litchi, Plum, Peach, Pear
Vegetables Cabbage, Cauliflower, Radish, Squash, Bean, Carrot, Pea, Tomato
Mushroom Area under Different Land use Statistics in Meghalaya:

(Area in Hectare)

Source: Area, Production & Yield of Principal Crops in Meghalaya. (Directorate of Economics & Statistics)

Agriculture Land Use Statistics


Particulars 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
area for Land
2234283 2240837 2241254 2241462 2241922
2.Forest 946116 946089 946127 946197 946201
3.Not available
for cultivation
236447 239194 239348 239041 239690
land excluding
Fallow Land
554532 555104 555039 555234 554579
5.Fallow land 213309 215273 215241 215331 215253
6.Net Area
283879 285177 285499 285659 286199
7.Area sown
more than once
53974 54040 54226 57226 57232
8.Total cropped
337853 339217 339725 342885 343431

Source: Statistical Handbook Meghalaya 2017

Production of Principal Crops


Crops 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
Rice 222731 265653 280546 297939
Cereals 252225 307557 323528 342196
Pulses 3699 7500 7733 7970
Jute ** 34563 63800 65542 67369
Cotton* 6389 8359 8602 9024
Sugarcane 199 280 315 337
Potato 165670 172956 181813 182285
Ginger 58132 60149 63259 65166

* : In bales of 170 Kgs each
** : In bales of 180 Kgs each

Source: Statistical Handbook Meghalaya 2017


The climatic conditions of Meghalaya are not favourable to agriculture for the reason that only about 10% of the total land is used for cultivation. Alternative occupations like livestock and poultry contribute to the villager’s subsidiary living. It is only nowadays that applying modern technologies have brought a ray of hope for choosing commercial livestock and poultry farming as a decent occupation. In spite of the fact that the current output of livestock production in the state has been raising the overall availability situation is not promising. Only 75 grams of milk per person per day is now available in the State likewise 38 NOS eggs are available per person per day as against the NRC recommendation of 180.

Thrust Area in Livestock resources-

1. A Qualitative improvement in all types of indigenous domestic stock such as Cattle Buffalo,Sheep, Pigs, Poultry, Ducks and Rabbit is needed to improve the overall productivity in these animals. By doing this the per capita availability of milk, egg and meat will be increased.

2. This can be only achieved by way of creating adequate infrastructure for animal production,health coverage, processing of animal products and the organization of an efficient marketing.A system to compare with the expected production.

3. Production of fodder and balanced livestock feed will get absolute priority so that animal production activities become cost-effective and remunerative to the farmers.

4. The government is seeking the Greater participation of farmers, and for this reason, the Government is encouraging the organization of farmers co-operatives, an involvement of N.G.Os in various activities.

5. Breeding provisions of cattle and buffaloes will be so arranged that the cattle and buffalo owners need not travel a long distance to get the stock inseminated with frozen semen.

6. The Government will provide breeding facilities for other animals enlarged through a supply of quality breeding animals.

7. The State Farms will begin supplying the breeding animals of better germplasm. The Government has already created facilities for the training of local farmers and demonstration of latest systems of farming.

8. However, the Department will encourage foundation of Commercially Viable Projects by private entrepreneurs and co-operative societies.

9. Dairy Development will be given greatest importance for processing as pasteurized milk and/or milk products for sale in cities and towns in Meghalaya and adjoining states through co-operative efforts. In rural areas, marketing facilities will be created for the interest of the rural people.

10. The Government will encourage commercial rearing of Khasi Hill Goats, improved pigs and poultry – egger & broiler in order to generate additional employment opportunities for the unemployed youths.

Production of Key Livestock Products

Year Milk Production
(‘000 Tonnes)
Meat Production
(‘000 Tonnes)
Egg Production
(Million Nos.)

Source: Statistical Handbook Meghalaya 2017