NATURAL RESOURCES
 

Mineral Resources:
Meghalaya contains rich and variety of industrial minerals, such as, Coal, Limestone, Clay, Kaolin, Sillimanite, Phospherite, Glass-sand, Granite, Quartz, Feldspar, Gypsum, Base Metal, Gold, Uranium, Iron-ore, etc.

Coal – The type of coal found in Meghalaya is tertiary coal, which is normally sub-bituminous in composition. Well known coalfields of Meghalaya are located in West Darrangiri, Siju, Pendengru-Balpakram in the South Garo Hills district; Borsora Langrin and Shallang in the West Khasi Hills district; East Darrangiri partly in West Khasi Hills and partly in East Garo Hills; Mawlong-Shella and Sohra-Cherrapunjee in the East Khasi Hills district and Bapung-Sutnga in the Jaintia Hills district.

Limestone- Abundant bed of limestone is found in the Southern part of Meghalaya from Jaintia Hills in the East and Garo Hills in the West. The large scale deposits occur in Cherrapunjee, Mawlong, Ichamati, Shella,Komorrah in the East Khasi Hills district; Borsora and Bagli in the West Khasi Hills district; Lakadong, Lumshnong and Nongkhlieh in the Jaintia Hills district; and Darrang Era-aning,Siju, Chokpot in the South Garo Hills district.

Uranium - Some quality uranium reserves were discovered in parts of Domiasiat and Porkut-Nongjri around Wahkynshi area in the West Khasi Hills District.

Granite– Reserves of multi-colored granite have been discovered around Nongpoh in the Ri-Bhoi District; Mylliem in the East Khasi Hills District; Mawkyrwat and Nongstoin in the West Khasi Hills District; and Mendipathar and Songsak in the East Garo Hills District.

Kaolin - Good quality Kaolin (China Clay) are spread over Mawphlang, Smit and Laitlyngkot in the East Khasi Hills. District; Thandlaskein, Shangpung,Mulieh and Mynsngat in the Jaintia Hills District; and Darugiri in the East Garo Hills District.

White Clay- In Meghalaya , the main sedimentary white clay deposits are found in Cherrapunjee and Mahadek in the East Khasi Hills; Nangalbibra in the South Garo Hills and Rongrengre in the East Garo Hills District.

Glass Sand- Glass sand is found to occur at Laitryngew, Umstew and Kreit in the East Khasi Hills and Tura in the West Garo Hills.

Sillimanite– Sillimanite also can be found found in some parts of Mawthengkut Block at Sonapahar of the West Khasi Hills District.

Production of Valuable Minerals

Year
Coal Production (‘000 MT)
Limestone Production (‘000 MT)
2010-2011
6974.1
2667.7
2011-2012
7205.9
4825.8
2012-2013
5649
4543.7
2013-2014
5732
4364.9
2014-2015
2521
4345.5

Source: Statistical Handbook Meghalaya 2017

Forest Resources:

Bamboo in Meghalaya

Bamboo is a key resource in Meghalaya’s socio-economic sector as it acts as a booming, all-inclusive, renewable environment-enhancing resource. Bamboos are not only utilizable for its traditional uses, but also can be feasible for various new applications and can be used as an alternative to rapidly depleting wood resources. It can be also utilize for many construction and furnishing materials.

Meghalaya is lavishly furnished with the bamboo forests. Bamboo plays an essential role in the socio-economic and cultural life of the people of Meghalaya because of its large plethora and multiple uses. Bamboo is extensively used in construction material, in making of diverse implements for agriculture, fishing and cattle rearing and the simple household items like utensils small furniture etc. The living source of a better part of population in the state is dependent on the handicrafts made of bamboo.

As stated by reports 36 species of bamboo from 14 genera are found in Meghalaya ( Biswas, 1988). The important clump forming species include Dendrocalamus strictus, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa arundinacea, Bambusa pallida, Bambusa tulda, whereas Melocanna bambusoides is the principal non-clump forming species.

Extent of natural bamboo forests in Meghalaya has been estimated to be 3108 sq kilometers (FSI Inventory Report, 1990), which is about 14 % of the total geographical area of the state. It has been estimated that the bamboo forest in the state bears 471 million equivalents of sound culms of bamboo. The weight of this Bamboo stock has been estimated to be 2.6 million tonnes. Considering felling cycle of 4 years, the potential yield of bamboo in the state is 2.09 tonnes/ha/year.

In Meghalaya the harvested bamboo is used for the following purposes:

  • Household use of the villagers
  • Making handicrafts
  • Selling bamboo for poles in the village and city markets
  • Selling bamboo as raw material to the paper mills located in the adjoining state of Assam

  • Area under Forest in Meghalaya:
    ('000 Hectares)

    Year Reserved forest Protected Forest National Park Un-classed Total
    2010-2011 71.54 1.24 39.95 850.3 963.03
    2011-2012 71.54 1.24 39.95 850.3 963.03
    2012-2013 71.54 1.24 39.95 850.3 963.03
    2013-2014 71.27 1.24 26.75 850.3 949.56

    Source:
    Statistical Handbook Meghalaya 2017

    Land Resources:

      2002-03 2003-04
      AREA IN HECTARES
    Total Geographical Land 2242900 2242900
    Land under Forest 947038 947219
    Land not available for cultivation 225321 225380
    Other un-cultivated land excluding Fallow land 600824 599589
    Current Fallow land 67032 67483
    Fallow other than current Fallows 600824 599589
    Net sown area 215525 219224
    Area sown more than once 46597 46650
    Gross sown area 261792 262830

    Source:

    Directorate of Agriculture. Govt. of Meghalaya.

    (http://db.nedfi.com/content/land-use-meghalaya)

    Sericulture

    Number of Sericultural Villages and Families engaged
    in Sericulture

    Year Sericultural villages Families engaged in Sericulture
    2010-2011 1812 28923
    2011-2012 1812 28923
    2012-2013 1366 35572
    2013-2014 1523 45205
    2014-2015 1523 45205

    Source: Statistical Handbook Meghalaya 2017