Nagaland Yearly Assessment 2011
The situation in Nagaland remained
quite peaceful in the first few months of 2011.
However, the factional fights between the two
NSCN factions continued. On 24 January 2011
the Union Home Ministry offered a 29-point counter
proposal to the NSCN-IM which had earlier submitted
a 32-point charter of demands. The counter proposal
included financial sops, facilities and accommodating
the "Kilonsers" (Ministers) of the NSCN-IM as
members of parliament and the "Tatars" (members)
as ministers in the state.
On 7 June 2011, NSCN-K ‘Chairman’
SS Khaplang was expelled from the outfit. The
'tartars' or 'members of parliament' of the
NSCN-K had a sitting at its Khehoi designated
camp near Dimapur and 'impeached' SS Khaplang
from his post and then expelled him from the
outfit. The reason for Khaplang’s expulsion
was that he was taking unilateral decisions
from his hideout in Myanmar without consulting
the leaders at Khehoi camp. He also had decided
to remove the outfit's commander-in-chief 'general'
Khole Konyak from his post without the consent
and approval of its 'national assembly'. Khole
Konyak was elected as the group’s acting
chairman by those present at the meeting.
On 11 June 2011, the expelled
chairman of NSCN-K, SS Khaplang issued two counter
expulsion orders - one for general secretary
N Kitovi Zhimomi and the other for ''kilo kilonser''
(home minister) Azheto Chophy and six other
functionaries of GPRN/NSCN. He alleged that
the expelled functionaries were "members
of the unification camp" and said they
were expelled for their "anti-party activities".
With this, the NSCN was
split into four factions - the Isak-Muivah faction,
the NSCN-K faction headed by Khole Konyak, the
NSCN-K faction headed by Khaplang, and NSCN-Unification.
The new split has further complicated the Naga
peace process. This shows that there is still
time left for the achievement of a lasting solution
to the Naga problem.
NSCN-IM and NSCN-K cadres involved in a shoot out on 13 July at Kothin under Tirap district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. According to reports no recoveries were made by the Security Forces of any kind from the spot. On 26 August, Isak Chishi Swu and Thuingaleng Muivah of NSCN-IM, General Khole Konyak and N. Kitovi Zhimomi of NSCN-Khole-Kitovi and Brigadier S. Singnya and Zhopra Vero of NNC signed a joint declaration called ‘The Naga Concordant’, in order to help form the Naga National Government.
Herato Sumi of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland- Unification (NSCN- U) and Vihuto, who were absconding since 18 November, partook in a four hour long gun battle with other cadres of the organization on 26 November at Sailhem in the Peren district. Sumi succumbed to gun shots while Vihuto managed to escape with injuries. It is alleged that both were related to the killing of Daniel Yeptho who hailed from the Zunheboto district of Nagaland apart from injuring a Sanskrit teacher on 26 November at Peren district.
Towards the end of the year on 5 December, members of the ‘Naga Concordant’ representing NSCN-IM, NNC and NSCN-Khole-Kitovi vowed to work towards the common good of the Naga fraternity.
To top it all militants imposed what they call an ‘annual salary tax’ on private business establishments and employees of all the departments of the Nagaland Government barring the police and district administrations. Fixed at 24 per cent of a month’s salary per year, media reports estimate the total to a whooping 13 billion annually. The Nagaland State Home Minister Imkong L. Imchen informed the house on the floor of the State Assembly on 15 September that 528 persons were arrested by the police between 2008 and mid 2011 in cases related to extortion. South Asia Terrorism Portal lists 12 incidents of extortion in 2011, as against nine in 2010 maintaining at the same time that this is just a fraction of the actual abductions and extortions during the year.
Nagaland Yearly Assessment 2010
The number of violent incident
in Nagaland has been low for some years now,
especially with both the factions of National
Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) under ceasefire
with the government. The year 2010 saw only
three casualties in Nagaland in insurgency-related
incidents. The peace talks between the union
government and the Isak-Muivah faction of the
NSCN also advanced. For the first time, one
round of talks was held in the state of Nagaland
The NSCN-IM delegation, lead
by its chairman Isak Chisi Swu and general secretary
Thuingaleng Muivah, met the Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh and Union Home Minister P Chidambaram
on March 2, 2010 in New Delhi. The Naga leaders
also held a series of meetings with the new
interlocutor for Naga peace talks, RS Pandey
during their stay in New Delhi. RS Pandey was
appointed interlocutor on February 11, 2010.
The visiting NSCN-IM delegation put forward
30 demands, which included sovereignty for Nagaland,
and unification of all Naga-dominated areas
of neighbouring states.
After the talks Muivah came
to Dimapur and decided to visit his native village
Somdal in Ukhrul district of Manipur. This was
to be his first visit to his birth place after
40 years. The union government also granted
his request and the visit was scheduled to take
place during first week of May 2010. Muivah
was also expected to visit other Naga-inhabited
areas of Manipur during the visit. But, on April
30, 2010, Manipur government announced that
it would not allow Muivah to come to Manipur
as there are possibilities of disturbances if
the NSCN-IM leader comes to Manipur. The government
also clamped restriction under Section 144 of
Cr PC in Senapati district in addition to deployment
of additional forces in order to prevent Muivah
from entering Manipur. On May 6, 2010, the situation
in Mao border gate, through which Muivah was
expected to enter Manipur, turned tense. A number
of locals stormed a temporary security barrack
which lead the security personnel resort to
firing leaving two locals dead and fifty others,
including women, injured. After this incident
and after requests from the Prime Minister’s
Office (PMO) and some Naga civil society organizations,
Muivah postponed his visit to Somdal and camped
himself in Viswema village near the Mao gate
on the inter-state border of Nagaland and Manipur.
Eventually, on June 5, 2010, the Central Government
persuaded Muivah to leave Vishwema village where
he was camping since May 6, 2010.
On June 1, 2010, Centre and
NSCN-IM held peace talks for the first time
in Nagaland at Kohima, where the issue of integration
of Naga-inhabited areas, as demanded by the
outfit, was discussed. However, the Centre ruled
out change in boundaries of states without the
consensus of political parties. Both sides came
to an understanding on some issues and expressed
their commitment to explore all possibilities
to arrive at a consensus on other sensitive
issues. Two more rounds of talks were held in
Delhi on July 23 and July 29, 2010 with both
the sides expressing satisfaction over the way
the talks were progressing.
On September 18, 2010, the
top leaders of the NSCN-IM, NSCN-K and the NNC
met at Ikishe village near Dimapur and vowed
to work towards ending hostilities among themselves
and consolidating understanding. NSCN-IM general
secretary T Muivah, NSCN-K general secretary
N Kitovi Zhimomi and NNC/FGN president S Singnya
attended the meeting organised by the Forum
for Naga Reconciliation (FNR).
On October 1, 2010 security
forces arrested Anthony Shimray, a senior NSCN-IM
functionary from Kathmandu in Nepal. Shimray
was the chief arms procurer for the outfit and
had been involved in gun running for a long
time. During the interrogation, Shimray revealed
the links between the NSCN-IM and China and
also about Indian insurgent groups buying arms
from the Chinese. He frequently visited China
to procure weapons from the clandestine arms
As a whole, the year 2010 was
quite a peaceful year in Nagaland. The peace
process with the NSCN-IM moved further ahead
and talks with the NSCN-K are also expected
to start soon. However the arrest of Anthony
Shimray shows NSCN-IM’s efforts of still
trying to strengthen its arms base and also
of selling arms to other insurgent outfits of
the Northeast. This is a cause of concern which
is needed to be tacked carefully by the Indian